HTML Special Character Reference

HTML entities (also known as character entity references) enable you to use characters that aren’t supported by the document’s character encoding or your keyboard. For example, you can type © to output a copyright symbol.

You can also use numeric character references. Numeric character references can be defined with either a decimal or hexadecimal value (although decimal is more common). The numeric character reference for the copyright symbol is © (decimal) and © (hexadecimal).

A key benefit that numeric character references have over entities is that they can be used to specify any unicode character, whereas entities can only specify some.

The following table is an abbreviated list of HTML special characters.

To do this…Type this…Or this…Description
‘ left single quote
’ right single quote
‚ single low-9 quote
“ left double quote
” right double quote
„ double low-9 quote
† dagger
‡ double dagger
‰ per mill sign
‹ single left-pointing angle quote
› single right-pointing angle quote
♠ black spade suit
♣ black club suit
♥ black heart suit
♦ black diamond suit
 ★black star
 ☆white star
‾ overline, = spacing overscore
← leftward arrow
↑ upward arrow
→ rightward arrow
↓ downward arrow
™ trademark sign
  �- unused
  	horizontal tab
  
line feed
   space
! !exclamation mark
""double quotation mark
# #number sign
$ $dollar sign
% %percent sign
&&&ampersand
 'apostrophe
( (left parenthesis
) )right parenthesis
* *asterisk
+ +plus sign
, ,comma
 -hyphen
. .period
/⁄/slash
0 – 9 0- 9digits 0-9
: :colon
; &#59;semicolon
<&lt;&#60;less-than sign
= &#61;equals sign
>&gt;&#62;greater-than sign
? &#63;question mark
@ &#64;at sign
A – Z &#65;- &#90;uppercase letters A-Z
[ &#91;left square bracket
  &#92;backslash
] &#93;right square bracket
^ &#94;caret
_ &#95;horizontal bar (underscore)
` &#96;grave accent
a – z &#97;- &#122;lowercase letters a-z
{ &#123;left curly brace
| &#124;vertical bar
/&frasl;&#47;slash
°&deg;&#176;degree sign
±&plusmn;&#177;plus or minus
²&sup2;&#178;superscript two
³&sup3;&#179;superscript three
´&acute;&#180;acute accent
µ&micro;&#181;micro sign
&para;&#182;paragraph sign
&middot;&#183;middle dot
¸&cedil;&#184;cedilla
¹&sup1;&#185;superscript one
º&ordm;&#186;masculine ordinal
 &raquo;&#187;right angle quote
¼&frac14;&#188;one-fourth
½&frac12;&#189;one-half
¾&frac34;&#190;three-fourths
¿&iquest;&#191;inverted question mark
&Agrave;&#192;uppercase A, grave accent
Á&Aacute;&#193;uppercase A, acute accent
&Acirc;&#194;uppercase A, circumflex accent
Ã&Atilde;&#195;uppercase A, tilde
Ä&Auml;&#196;uppercase A, umlaut
Å&Aring;&#197;uppercase A, ring
Æ&AElig;&#198;uppercase AE
Ç&Ccedil;&#199;uppercase C, cedilla
È&Egrave;&#200;uppercase E, grave accent
É&Eacute;&#201;uppercase E, acute accent
Ê&Ecirc;&#202;uppercase E, circumflex accent
Ë&Euml;&#203;uppercase E, umlaut
Ì&Igrave;&#204;uppercase I, grave accent
Í&Iacute;&#205;uppercase I, acute accent
Î&Icirc;&#206;uppercase I, circumflex accent
Ï&Iuml;&#207;uppercase I, umlaut
Ð&ETH;&#208;uppercase Eth, Icelandic
Ñ&Ntilde;&#209;uppercase N, tilde
Ò&Ograve;&#210;uppercase O, grave accent
Ó&Oacute;&#211;uppercase O, acute accent
Ô&Ocirc;&#212;uppercase O, circumflex accent
Õ&Otilde;&#213;uppercase O, tilde
Ö&Ouml;&#214;uppercase O, umlaut
×&times;&#215;multiplication sign
Ø&Oslash;&#216;uppercase O, slash
Ù&Ugrave;&#217;uppercase U, grave accent
Ú&Uacute;&#218;uppercase U, acute accent
Û&Ucirc;&#219;uppercase U, circumflex accent
Ü&Uuml;&#220;uppercase U, umlaut
Ý&Yacute;&#221;uppercase Y, acute accent
Þ&THORN;&#222;uppercase THORN, Icelandic
ß&szlig;&#223;lowercase sharps, German
&agrave;&#224;lowercase a, grave accent
á&aacute;&#225;lowercase a, acute accent
&acirc;&#226;lowercase a, circumflex accent
ã&atilde;&#227;lowercase a, tilde
ä&auml;&#228;lowercase a, umlaut
å&aring;&#229;lowercase a, ring
æ&aelig;&#230;lowercase ae
ç&ccedil;&#231;lowercase c, cedilla
è&egrave;&#232;lowercase e, grave accent
é&eacute;&#233;lowercase e, acute accent
ê&ecirc;&#234;lowercase e, circumflex accent
ë&euml;&#235;lowercase e, umlaut
ì&igrave;&#236;lowercase i, grave accent
í&iacute;&#237;lowercase i, acute accent
î&icirc;&#238;lowercase i, circumflex accent
ï&iuml;&#239;lowercase i, umlaut
ð&eth;&#240;lowercase eth, Icelandic
ñ&ntilde;&#241;lowercase n, tilde
ò&ograve;&#242;lowercase o, grave accent
ó&oacute;&#243;lowercase o, acute accent
ô&ocirc;&#244;lowercase o, circumflex accent
õ&otilde;&#245;lowercase o, tilde
ö&ouml;&#246;lowercase o, umlaut
÷&divide;&#247;division sign
ø&oslash;&#248;lowercase o, slash
ù&ugrave;&#249;lowercase u, grave accent
ú&uacute;&#250;lowercase u, acute accent
û&ucirc;&#251;lowercase u, circumflex accent
ü&uuml;&#252;lowercase u, umlaut
ý&yacute;&#253;lowercase y, acute accent
þ&thorn;&#254;lowercase thorn, Icelandic
ÿ&yuml;&#255;lowercase y, umlaut

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